Footnotes

1. Plural of saga, an oral tradition, transmitted by word of mouth, like the Sanskrit smrti and sruti, teachings "remembered" and "heard" respectively.

2. Numbers alone refer to verses in the lay named in the chapter title.

3. Genera, generations of related beings.

4. Names in italics are not translated; some may be "nonsense syllables," others may refer to fauna or flora not recognized or perhaps extinct.

5. "Thirst for Gold." Cf. p. 42

6. This cryptic recurring phrase is translated verbatim.

7. The serpent undermining Yggdrasil's roots.

8. The world serpent: the equator, ecliptic, or Milky Way.

9. "Palebeak": the eagle Rasvalg.

10. "Nailfarer," ship of death, built of dead men's nails.

11. "Wildfire": the adverse side of Loki.

12. Frigga, Odin's spouse.

13. The sword of Frey.

14. Yggdrasil, the Tree of Life.

15. Yggdrasil.

16. The "god of secret wisdom."

17. A superior shelf of existence, home of the new earth and sun.